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Offline Student

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Sadaqah & Zakat
« on: January 07, 2018, 03:24:06 AM »
Salaamun Alayka,
Sir Joseph,

Hope you're keeping well. Although I've read your all your articles including "The concept of Sadaqah & Zakah" couple of years ago, I revisited them last night after a (traditionalist) WhatsApp message triggered a discussion on exclusion of Syed family from Zakat funds, and noticed you did not make use of 2:219 or even cite it in either of these articles, and you've made a passing reference only 3 times in all your QM Forum posts - was it a overlook? Doesn't 2:219 alluding/seems to answer oft repeated question raised on the Quran on %age of Zakah?

Also, you've rightly distinguished between Zakah and Sadaqah but it appear your interpretation of this act as voluntary charity while 9:60 clearly made use of the words فَرِيضَةً مِّنَ اللَّهِ - Did I misread or misunderstood your position on the subject?

Your clarification is much appreciated, Jazak Allah khair in anticipation  :)

Thanks,
~ Student

Offline Joseph Islam

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Re: Sadaqah & Zakat
« Reply #1 on: January 07, 2018, 04:42:43 PM »
Wa alaikum assalam Student,

Please kindly see my responses to your comments in brown italic text below:

"you did not make use of 2:219 or even cite it in either of these articles, and you've made a passing reference only 3 times in all your QM Forum posts - was it a overlook? Doesn't 2:219 alluding/seems to answer oft repeated question raised on the Quran on %age of Zakah?"

Why would this be an overlook dear brother?

"They ask you what they should spend. Say 'The surplus / the abundance / superfluity / excess'." (Part: 2:219)

How is the above a reference to the oft repeated question raised on the percentage of Zakat dear brother?

We are instructed to spend / give away what is considered excess / surplus / our abundance or material resources that are beyond our needs (arguably as much as possible to charitable needs) whereas the 'zakat' (as the comprehensive article [1] below attempts to show with numerous references) is specifically geared to an obligatory system based on income. This is incumbent on everyone in society regardless of religious lean. It’s a societal obligation. Arguably, the more one earns, the more one contributes.

"but it appear your interpretation of this act as voluntary charity while 9:60 clearly made use of the words فَرِيضَةً مِّنَ اللَّهِ - Did I misread or misunderstood your position on the subject?"

The extent of who the charities are due to are clearly represented in verse 9:60. This is the charitable remit / apportionment (faridah) that the Quran refers to in verse 9:60. I respectfully do not see the linkage of this exclusively with Zakat simply based on the word 'faridah' (apportioned / ordained) when the opening verse mentions the context specifically as 'sadaqah'.

As I mentioned recently in a post:

"I guess, the only things that we can truly take away from this temporal earthly existence, are those things that we willingly give away..." [2]

I trust that this clarifies, God willing

Regards,
Joseph


REFERENCES:

[1] WHAT IS THE CONCEPT OF ZAKAT FROM THE QURAN?
http://quransmessage.com/articles/zakah%20FM3.htm
[2] WHAT WE TAKE WITH US
https://www.facebook.com/joseph.a.islam/posts/1077681065702353
[3] THE CONCEPT OF SADAQAH FROM THE QURAN
http://quransmessage.com/articles/sadaqah%20FM3.htm
'During times of universal deceit, telling the truth becomes a revolutionary act' 
George Orwell

Offline Student

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Re: Sadaqah & Zakat
« Reply #2 on: January 11, 2018, 06:10:50 AM »
Salamun Alayka,
Sir Joseph,

Apologies (I caught flu and got very sick, Alhumdulillah much better now) for late acknowledgement and note of thank to you for a quick response to my query  :)

Sorry my later part of the query is misunderstood, I did not link or propose a link between Sadaqah and Zakat and that is why I started the sentence "you've rightly distinguished between Zakah and Sadaqah". I'm in complete agreement with your view on Zakat but you weren't explicit whether Sadaqah is an obligation and seems to take it as voluntary act. Is it correct? If so, how is giving in charity something (Sadaqah) is voluntary when it(=what is being given) has be given to X, Y, & Z only (which is obligatory)?

Also, you're mixing Infaq (spend) ayats with Sadaqah (charity) when listing benefits of Sadaqah but when reference to %age of Zakat can be implied from 2:219 you do not see a link between Infaq and Zakat, any particular reason why only Sadaqah is linked with Infaq and not with Zakat?

In "money matters" isn't Infaq general term (used 68 times in all forms, and in imperative mood few times) for spending/expend and the very act (of spending) seems to cover both Zakat and Sadaqah? Or is Infaq another mutually exclusive charitable act? If so, is it voluntary or obligatory in nature? When something is said over and over 66 times the only question that comes naturally to listener's mind is "what and how much", both of which are answered making the total usage of the word 68 in all forms, hence I say your articles overlooked 2:219 when talking about Zakat and Sadaqah.
 
with respect and warm regards to you as ever  :)
Thanks,
~ Student

Offline Joseph Islam

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Re: Sadaqah & Zakat
« Reply #3 on: January 11, 2018, 05:33:33 PM »
Wa alaikum assalam Student,

Please kindly see my responses in brown italics to your comments  below.

Sorry my later part of the query is misunderstood, I did not link or propose a link between Sadaqah and Zakat and that is why I started the sentence "you've rightly distinguished between Zakah and Sadaqah".  Your focus appeared to be on the term rendered as ‘obligatory’ (faridah) with an underlying connotation with Zakat and I have repeatedly shared that the ‘Zakat’ is an obligation in the sense it is a societal obligation for everyone. Hence your sentiments were construed in that manner from my perspective.

I'm in complete agreement with your view on Zakat but you weren't explicit whether Sadaqah is an obligation and seems to take it as voluntary act. Is it correct? Sadaqah is a voluntary act and as I mentioned in my response to you, the ‘extent of who the charities are due to are clearly represented in verse 9:60. This is the charitable remit / apportionment (faridah) that the Quran refers to in verse 9:60.’

If so, how is giving in charity something (Sadaqah) is voluntary when it(=what is being given) has be given to X, Y, & Z only (which is obligatory)? The act of giving is a voluntary act but once given, the remit of the recipients are apportioned. In my humble view, you are unnecessarily focusing on the term ‘faridah’ with a particular rendition, whilst in this context, all the verse is committing to is the remit / apportionment (faridah) to whom the charities should be given.

Also, you're mixing Infaq (spend) ayats with Sadaqah (charity) when listing benefits of Sadaqah but when reference to %age of Zakat can be implied from 2:219 you do not see a link between Infaq and Zakat, any particular reason why only Sadaqah is linked with Infaq and not with Zakat? I respectfully but completely disagree with you. You have again implied the linkage of 'faridah' in this context to cover 'Zakat' as well. In my view, you are unnecessarily conflating the two. There is no mention of ‘Zakat’ in verse 2:219 which I have dealt with in a holistic article as a societal obligation or %, which is determined by the governance / state according to its need.

In "money matters" isn't Infaq general term (used 68 times in all forms, and in imperative mood few times) for spending/expend and the very act (of spending) seems to cover both Zakat and Sadaqah? Or is Infaq another mutually exclusive charitable act? If so, is it voluntary or obligatory in nature? The verb ‘anfaqa’ simply means to spend or the act of spending. There are indeed numerous verses in the Quran where God asks His servants to ‘spend’ from what He has given them in a number of ways. Whether it is for parents / kinsmen (2:215), whether it is in the way of God (2:262), whether it is done in a balanced way (25:67), whether it is in a matrimonial context (60:11) or whatever the reason, ‘anfaqa’ simply means to spend.

However, the context of ‘spend’ in verse 2:219 leans towards charitable acts as there is a theme in flow. Please kindly read verse 2:215, (a few verses earlier) which is speaking about spending on parents, near of kin, orphans, needy and the wayfarers.


When something is said over and over 66 times the only question that comes naturally to listener's mind is "what and how much", both of which are answered making the total usage of the word 68 in all forms, hence I say your articles overlooked 2:219 when talking about Zakat and Sadaqah. Again, I strongly disagree with you. That question of ‘what and how much’ doesn’t immediately arise if the context of the verses are allowed and are not seen in a 'Zakat' context. If God wanted to provide a definitive amount or a percentage, or implied that He was referring to Zakat, He would have arguably mentioned it. This is a constant theme in the Quran. Where the Quran has not been explicit, it is deliberate and this does not mean that one attempts to stipulate an obligation of an extent or attempt to elicit or interpret finer details. Once again, the 'surplus' mentioned in verse 2:219 is arguably linked to the charitable remit and supported by the contextual verse 2:215 earlier.

Dear brother, as I feel that I am now repeating myself, may I kindly and respectfully request that you accept my response to you as my last on this matter.

with respect and warm regards to you as ever   
To you as well my dear brother.

'During times of universal deceit, telling the truth becomes a revolutionary act' 
George Orwell

Offline Student

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Re: Sadaqah & Zakat
« Reply #4 on: January 13, 2018, 06:25:58 AM »
Salaamun Alayka,
Sir Joseph,

I immensely respect your time and commitments, and would greatly appreciate your explanation for the questions arising below.

The following Quran verses commands believers to spend and it is in imperative mood meaning it is a duty believers must oblige and take it as an obligatory act:

And spend [freely] in God's cause, and let not your own hands throw you into destruction; and persevere in doing good: behold, God loves the doers of good. (2:195)

O YOU who have attained to faith! Spend [in Our way] out of what We have granted you as sustenance ere there come a Day when there will be no bargaining, and no friendship, and no intercession. And they who deny the truth -it is they who are evildoers! (2:254)

O you who have attained to faith! Spend on others out of the good things which you may have acquired, and out of that which We bring forth for you from the earth; and choose not for your spending the bad things which you yourselves would not accept without averting your eyes in disdain. And know that God is self-sufficient, ever to be praised. (2:267)

Thus, when they are told, “Spend on others out of what God has provided for you as sustenance,” those who are bent on denying the truth say unto those who believe, “Shall we feed anyone whom, if [your] God had so willed, He could have fed [Himself]? Clearly, you are but lost in error!” (36:47)

BELIEVE in God and His Apostle, and spend on others out of that of which He has made you trustees: for, those of you who have attained to faith and who spend freely [in God’s cause] shall have a great reward. (57:7)

 The following two verses you listed them under the benefits of Sadaqah.

And spend on others out of what We have provided for you as sustenance, ere there come a time when death approaches any of you, and he then says, "O my Sustainer! If only Thou wouldst grant me a delay for a short while, so that I could give in charity and be among the righteous!" (63:10)

Remain, then, conscious of God as best you can, and listen [to Him], and pay heed. And spend in charity for the good of your own selves: for, such as from their own covetousness are saved – it is they, they that shall attain to a happy state! (64:16)

The Infaq/Spend in the above verses is referring to Zakat or something in addition to Zakat as you ruled Sadaqah out as an obligation?
Why a voluntary act is expected of disbelievers and presented as an argument and a case against them (36:47)?
Why would missing on a voluntary act becomes a source of eternal regret so much so a second life is pleaded (63:10)?
Why would people missing on voluntary act aren't part of successful ones and presumably party of losers (64:16)?

On Zakat article you wrote:
Quote
If the state is an Islamic state, then the payment of Zakat will be to that particular state. The rate will be appropriately levied by those in governance given their circumstances. If one abides in another land, then a duty of responsibility and obligation is due to that particular community and state as responsible citizens.
This is the case for entire Ummah for almost its entire life (stateless with no Zakat governing body) and so as a Quran follower I see a general guiding principle in 2:219 (alongside others such as 8:41 & 17:29), to which you don't agree so may I ask

wherever you live, how are you discharging your zakat duties?
What shall be my zakat in the US (after federal+state taxes)? Doesn't this come from my surplus? Or federal+state taxes is my zakat? If so, with what charity name tag and category do I answer the call of set of ayaats listed at the top?

On Sadaqah:
you said the word faridah in 9:60 applies only to apportionment and does not include the Sadaqah itself - is there a language rule or grammar that is governing this restriction? Kindly elaborate.

Lastly, why is Allah swt severely rebuking and threatening the newly emerging Muslim community with their replacement for something that is not part of their obligatory duty to discharge in the first place (remember there's no Zakat mentioned in the following Ayah)?

Behold, [O believers,] it is you who are called upon to spend freely in God’s cause: but [even] among you are such as turn out to be niggardly! And yet, he who acts niggardly [in God’s cause] is but niggardly towards his own self: for God is indeed self-sufficient, whereas you stand in need [of Him]; and if you turn away [from Him], He will cause other people to take your place, and they will not be the likes of you! (47:38)

All these make me strongly think there is something on top of Zakat as an obligation a believer is expected to spend, failure is not an option. Kindly provide your insight sir.

with a sincere request and warm regards to you as ever :)
Thanks,
~ Student

Offline Hamzeh

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Re: Sadaqah & Zakat
« Reply #5 on: January 13, 2018, 09:02:43 AM »
Asalamu 3alaykum

Dear brother Student

I know these questions are directed to brother Joseph. I am only responding as he had mentioned his last post was to be taken as his last. However I do feel he does respond when he feels is right and when he can. So please allow me to make a little contribution to clear up some confusions you might have. However if I am in anyways incorrect I believe brother Joseph will disregard my response and answer your inquiries correctly.

Quote
The following Quran verses commands believers to spend and it is in imperative mood meaning it is a duty believers must oblige and take it as an obligatory act:

Yes obligatory as a voluntary act to believers. But not as a law or constitution. Allow me to explain

There is many men and women in the world who are blessed and trusted with huge amounts of money. No matter how that money was earned whether trade, inheritance, services etc. The money that is made at the end is what they own. Please remember this kind of possession as a different class of money than Zakat. I will come back to this and explain how this is to be used as Sadaqat and Anfiqu(spending).


In a country of an Islamic constitution, a law of an obligatory system of Zakat should be enforced and be part of the constitution. This system of Zakat is to be collected from the people irrespective of their faith or beliefs(41:6-7). The Quran also details on how to pay this due. It is to be collected from the people through their PROFITS and not their savings(6:141). The obligation here is that believers are expected to pay this with honesty from a religious perspective as well as an obligation to be setup part of an Islamic constitution.

If you need more elaborations on this part please see the article called "WHAT IS THE CONCEPT OF ZAKAT FROM THE QURAN?"

 
Now once a system of Zakat is implemented the government will take their cut and the people will be left with theirs. The government will use that money for their own society and to strengthen it by whatever way they deem necessary. A duty upon the government to collect and use it correctly and a duty upon the people to pay it.

The above is all about zakat and not spending in the way of God or Sadaqa.


Now the verses you kindly cited are speaking to public in regards of their personal life however the believers who are entrusted with money of their own also have a duty which is to spend/anfiq. To spend/anfiqu in the cause of God. To spend/feed their parents, poor, needy, those who don't have work, etc. It can also be used to establish charities which from the money collected will be used to pay the people who work at the charities/people who collect(9:60).

How much should the people spend? Allah(swt) answers that in verse 2:219. The leftover/surplus/excess. This is all based on a persons ability. Everyone is different. Their is some people after paying their zakat/taxes who still acquire a whole lot of money and are wealthy and some who just make ends meet.

Those who don't have and cannot afford to give any money in way of charity or in the way of God are of course not required. However if they are making profits to make their living in their life they are expected to keep paying their dues/zakat to the government(58:13).

Also those who cannot afford to pay anything when asked, then depart with kind words.

Verse 2:219 suggest to spend as much as possible. It will not go to waste. This is in God's way. However their is also other verses which indicate how to spend(4:5, 17:29,etc).

Its arguably more of a blame on the wealthy who do not spend(9:92-93).

The verses you cited are for sure a caution to all those that have the means to spend. We can see that by what will be said on the Day of Judgement by the people who did not spend.

Those who spend is a great reward.

Quote
The Infaq/Spend in the above verses is referring to Zakat or something in addition to Zakat as you ruled Sadaqah out as an obligation?

They are referring to sadaqat/spending in God ways out of ones free will. Voluntarily.
I believe he had mentioned it is not an obligation like as a law from the government. It is not to be forced upon the people to pay Sadaqa.

Quote
Why a voluntary act is expected of disbelievers and presented as an argument and a case against them (36:47)

This is the response of the disbelievers. The greedy. The extravagant. Everyone is called on to spend from what God has provided for them. Those who respond like this of course are disbelievers.

Quote
Why would missing on a voluntary act becomes a source of eternal regret so much so a second life is pleaded (63:10)

Voluntary meaning given the will to act upon your own discernment on how much to give. Man will regret that he/she did not give as you see giving in the cause of God is great and will arguably remit ones sins.

Quote
Why would people missing on voluntary act aren't part of successful ones and presumably party of losers (64:16)

I think the above answers should suffice Insha'Allah

For the rest of your questions I think you should be able to make them out with the information provided Insha'Allah.

Also please brother Joseph if I intruded I apologize and omit/delete my comments if you feel they are not contributing or irrelevant to this post and start from scratch. I would not be saddened at all.  :) :)


Salam